Infectious Disease: Evolving Challenges to Human Health
VACCINES & HUMAN IMMUNITY

Vaccines & Human Immunity Interactive -- Text-only Version

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Home page text:
Vaccines give people immunity to specific infectious diseases, protecting them from potentially life-threatening illnesses. They also protect communities from epidemics because immune people do not catch diseases or efficiently pass them on to others.

This interactive shows what happens to rates of infection as different percentages of a population are vaccinated against influenza or measles. 

Two buttons are labeled Influenza and Measles.

The first influenza screen displays a map with the following text superimposed:
Different strains of influenza circle the globe each year.  Fortunately, the epidemics are not life threatening for most people, although about 36,000 people die of influenza each year in the U.S.  Risk is uneven,  Some people spread infections more easily to others and some are more susceptible to severe complications.  The vaccine is often in short supply.

How much vaccine is needed to control a severe influenza epidemic, and who should receive it?

Select a scenario for allocating vaccine:
Below are three buttons labeled 21%, 27%, and 63%.

To the right is the following text:

Vaccinating Against an Influenza Epidemic.

In this interactive you can choose to vaccinate either 21%, 27% or 63% of a population against a strain of the influenza virus.  Each scenario contains graphs showing the number of infections for the given rate of vaccination versus no vaccination.

The red target at the start shows the first infection, and the tiny red dots show all infections as the epidemic progresses.

  

The 21% button displays an animation superimposed over the same map.  There are two graphs at the top, one of which shows how many people would be infected over a 120-day period in a typical year if 21% of the population is vaccinated, including 47% of high-risk people (seniors, chronically ill, very young children, and pregnant women), 22% of other recommended groups (health care workers, households in contact with high risk populations, young children, and older adults), and 14% of all other groups.  The other graph shows the number of infections over the same period if 0% of the population are vaccinated.

As the animation progresses, red dots on the map indicate infections, and the graphs show the number of infections increasing until the 22% vaccinated group shows 46,456 infections, and the 0% vaccinated group shows 927,403 infections.

A button appears at the bottom which reads "Try another Influenza scenario".

The 27% button displays an animation superimposed over the same map.  There are two graphs at the top, one of which shows how many people would be infected over a 120-day period in a typical year if 27% of the population is vaccinated, including 47% of high-risk people (seniors, chronically ill, very young children, and pregnant women) , 22% of other recommended groups (health care workers, households in contact with high risk populations, young children, and older adults), and 14% of all other groups.  The other graph shows the number of infections over the same period if 0% of the population are vaccinated.

As the animation progresses, red dots on the map indicate infections, and the graphs show the number of infections increasing until the 27% vaccinated group shows 19,475 infections, and the 0% vaccinated group shows 927,403 infections.

A button appears at the bottom which reads "Try another Influenza scenario".

The 63% button displays an animation superimposed over the same map.  There are two graphs at the top, one of which shows how many people would be infected over a 120-day period in a typical year if 63% of the population is vaccinated, including 47% of high-risk people (seniors, chronically ill, very young children, and pregnant women) , 22% of other recommended groups (health care workers, households in contact with high risk populations, young children, and older adults), and 14% of all other groups.  The other graph shows the number of infections over the same period if 0% of the population are vaccinated.

As the animation progresses, red dots on the map indicate infections, and the graphs show the number of infections increasing until the 63% vaccinated group shows 76 infections, and the 0% vaccinated group shows 927,403 infections.

A button appears at the bottom which reads "Try another Influenza scenario".

The first measles screen displays a map with the following text superimposed:
Measles is rare in most countries today, but the disease is not yet eradicated.  Some parents are choosing not to vaccinate their children.  Even though epidemics are rare in most places, people traveling to and from endemic regions can still spread the disease wherever they go.

Each scenario is based on a different rate of vaccinating children.  After 20 years, a new case appears.

What might happen if we stop vaccinating children before measles is eradicated?

Select a scenario:
Below are three buttons labeled 2%, 10%, and No Vaccine.

To the right is the following text:

Vaccinating Against a Measles Epidemic.

This interactive shows the importance of vaccination by allowing you to see what would happen to the spread of measles if we chose to vaccinate 2% fewer people, 10% fewer people, or stopped vaccinations against measles altogether.

The red target at the start shows the first infection, and the tiny red dots show all infections as the epidemic progresses.

The 2% button displays an animation superimposed over the same map.  There is a  graphs at the top  which shows how many people would be infected over a 120-day period each year for 20 years if 2% fewer of the population is vaccinated.

As the animation progresses, red dots on the map indicate infections, and the graph shows the number of infections increasing until it shows 172,127 infections.

A button appears at the bottom which reads "Try another measles scenario".

The 10% button displays an animation superimposed over the same map. There is a  graphs at the top  which shows how many people would be infected over a 120-day period each year for 20 years if 10% fewer of the population is vaccinated.

As the animation progresses, red dots on the map indicate infections, and the graph shows the number of infections increasing until it shows 1,591,565 infections.

A button appears at the bottom which reads "Try another measles scenario".

The No Vaccinations button displays an animation superimposed over the same map.  There is a  graphs at the top  which shows how many people would be infected over a 120-day period each year for 20 years if none of the population are vaccinated.

As the animation progresses, red dots on the map indicate infections, and the graph shows the number of infections increasing until it shows 2,725,404 infections.

A button appears at the bottom which reads "Try another measles scenario".